XLVII международная выставка-презентация
научных, технических, учебно-методических и литературно-художественных изданий

Теория и методология перевода в когнитивно-герменевтическом освещении


ГруппаНаучная литература
Название на русском языкеТеория и методология перевода в когнитивно-герменевтическом освещении
Авторы на русском языкеМишкуров Э.Н., Новикова М.Г.

Резюме

Монография «Теория и методология перевода в когнитивно-герменевтическом освещении» написана академиком РАЕ, доктором филологических наук, профессором Э.Н. Мишкуровым в соавторстве с доктором филологических наук, доцентом М.Г. Новиковой. Книга представляет собой расширенный и дополненный новыми разделами вариант ранее вышедшей монографии Э.Н. Мишкурова «Герменевтика перевода (теоретико-методологический стандарт)» (М., 2018, ВУ). До выхода данных монографических исследований герменевтики перевода в отечественной транслатологии не существовало.

Настоящая работа выполнена в русле нового научного направления – «Общая и переводческая герменевтика», ориентированного на теоретико-методологическое осмысление и практическое внедрение философско-герменевтических стратегий и тактик в современные переводоведческий и переводческий континуумы.

В монографии в рамках когнитивно-герменевтического подхода освещаются вопросы «герменевтического поворота» в современной теории и методологии перевода. В работе описывается герменевтико-переводческое пространство, отражающее философско-феноменологическое влияние герменевтики на современную транслатологию на уровнях герменевтико-переводческой парадигмы и герменевтико-переводческого методологического стандарта в свете когнитивных процессов предпонимания, понимания, интерпретации и переводческого решения. Монография представляет собой оригинальную авторскую разработку, опирающуюся на авторитет работ выдающихся зарубежных и отечественных герменевтов – теоретиков и практиков перевода. Широко представлен иллюстративный материал, отражающий различные текстотипы и их жанры.

В книге дается современное философско-герменевтическое и широкое трансдисциплинарное освещение проблем перевода текстов различных типов и жанров, представлена инновационная герменевтическая парадигма перевода, базирующаяся на авторском герменевтико-переводческом методологическом стандарте.

Конкретно в работе исследуются следующие проблемы:

– философско-герменевтические пролегомены к современной теории и методологии перевода;

– философская герменевтика и перевод;

– отечественное переводоведение в когнитивно-герменевтическом освещении;

– о триаде «автор-переводчик-читатель»;

– смысл перевода и перевод смысла;

– язык, «языковые игры», перевод;

– герменевтическая парадигма перевода;

– герменевтико-переводческий методологический стандарт;

– трансдисциплинарный подход в современном переводоведении;

– когниции предпонимания и понимания;

– когниция интерпретации;

– когниция переводческого решения.

В монографии акцентируется внимание на парадигмальных сдвигах в исследовательских практиках мировой научной элиты, обусловленных философско-герменевтической антропологизацией проблем связи языка, сознания и мышления, рефлексирующей концептуализацией речевой деятельности современного «Homo loquens» (человека говорящего) и «Homo ludens» (человека играющего) в его «текстовом» мировосприятии, осмыслением феномена «непереводимости» в естественных языках как их онтологического свойства и поиском путей ее преодоления посредством философски модернизированной, методологически обновленной переводческой герменевтики.

Перевод рассматривается как хайдеггеровский «дом бытия» для реципиентов-инофонов, «вторгающихся» в концептосферы разноликих мировых культур с целью познания «чужого», и как «реабилитирующий ресурс» потенциальной повторяемости для уменьшения фактора риска, вызываемого асимметрией языков различного строя. Концептуализируется корреляция между идеальным представлением об «общественном предназначении» перевода, конкретным «общественным заказом» на перевод и реальной практикой «перевода смыслов». В качестве фактуальной базы использованы разновременные переводы сакральных (библейских, коранических) текстов соответственно с древнееврейского, греческого и арабского языков на латинский, славянский и русский, выполненные видными переводчиками-учеными, философами-теологами, законоучителями, ориенталистами-филологами и т.д.

Работа предназначена для специалистов в области переводоведения, философов, интересующихся проблемами перевода, аспирантов и студентов лингвистических университетов.

Теоретические положения работы проиллюстрированы богатым набором образцов перевода с исходного языка на язык перевода, разносторонне описывается творческая мастерская теоретиков и практиков перевода.

Библиография работы включает в себя свыше трехсот наименований соответствующих трудов отечественных и зарубежных ученых на русском и западноевропейских языках.


Abstract

The monograph is devoted to consideration of the «hermeneutic turn» problem in modern theory and methodology of translation within the framework of the cognitive-hermeneutic approach. The research illuminates the hermeneutic-translation area, which reflects the philosophical and phenomenological influence of hermeneutics on modern translatology (translation theory) at the levels of the hermeneutic-translation paradigm and hermeneutic-translation methodological standard in the aspects of cognitive processes of pre-understanding, understanding, interpretation and translation decision (final variant of translation). The monograph is an original work based on the analyses of treatises by prominent foreign and Russian hermeneutics specializing in translation theory and practice. Illustrative material reflecting various text types and their genres is widely presented.

The book is aimed for specialists in the field of translation studies, philosophers interested in translation problems, graduate students and students of linguistic Universities.

The monograph presents a new approach to the theory and practice of translation based on theoretical comprehension and practical implementation of cognitive-hermeneutic strategies and tactics. The paper summarizes the results of different studies of the hermeneutical aspects of translation conducted in Russia and abroad. The so-called «hermeneutic turn» in the modern translation theory is conditioned by the latest achievements in philosophical, semiotic, linguo-cognitive, ethno-psycho-linguistic and linguo-cultural studies of language games as produced by Homo loquens and Homo ludens. The work offers a critical review of the beliefs and maxims proposed by Western European philosophers L. Wittgenstein, M. Heidegger, H-G. Gadamer, W. Benjamin, J. Derrida et al. concerning translation theory and practice in the light of the works by F. Schleiermacher, J. Ortega y Gasset and a number of other leading Russian scholars as well. P. Ricœur’s views on translatability/untranslatability are critically considered and his aporia «faithfulness/disloyalty to the source text» is said to be linked to the episteme «translatability» exclusively, with the category «untranslatability» being part and parcel of the concept «translatability/untranslatability».

The «hermeneutic turn» in Western European translation studies took place several decades earlier than in Russian science. The reasons for «hermeneutic stagnation» in the Soviet Union are explained and new modern approaches to the active development of cognitive-hermeneutic translatology in various Russian scientific schools are shown.

The monograph (for the first time in the history of translation theory both in Russia and abroad) outlines the holistic approach to understanding the objective and subjective reasons for variability of translations of the same to-ken secular and sacral texts into the same or different languages in terms of the chronotope and the idea of the «chaos» and «regular variability of interpretations and reinterpretations of texts». Emphasis is placed on the pragma-culturological aspects of translation plurality. Translation is viewed respectively as a «house of being» for recipients speaking other languages who «intrude» into conceptual spheres of different cultures with the purpose of understanding the «alien» culture and as a «rehabilitating resource» of potential repetitiveness whose aim is to reduce the risk factor caused by the structural asymmetry of languages.

The study of the role language-games «author – translator – reader» problem is carried out by the method of systemic interpretation of the functions of each member of the given trichotomy in the translation process. Russian and foreign scholars’ opinions are confronted and the discussion is rounded off by the authors’ comment. It is stated that the translation is aimed at the «target reader» and the figure of the «author» is relevant at the stage of translator’s pre-understanding.

The work discusses the interdisciplinary turn in the history of translation studies both in Russia and abroad. The concepts of scholars who postulate the unique methodological status of translatology and defend the relevance of the «monistic approach» to interpreting its ontological status, subject and object of study are critically evaluated. The monograph expounds on the transition of translation theory and practice onto the fourth stage of disciplinarity – transdisciplinarity. The authors also advocate the idea that translatological issues are to be incorporated into the global philosopho-hermeneutical theory of intercultural intertextuality and interlingual cognitive-semiotic mediation.

The work explores the so-called «hermeneutical methodological standard» which can be traced back to philosophical hermeneutics and has been positively taken by a number of adjacent humanities and, in a modified way, chosen by the authors as the basis for the innovative synergetic transdisciplinary «hermeneutical paradigm of translation».

The hermeneutical paradigm of translation is defined as an open synthesizing system which comprises almost all significant classical and innovative translation models, meeting the needs of reflexive understanding, phenomeno-logical reduction and optimal interpretation of source texts, as well as the translation decision tasks on re-expression and re-generation of the acceptable «translation regular correspondences and inconsistencies».

In other words, the «hermeneutical paradigm of translation» is defined as an epistemic-synergetic, creative-conceptual wholeness of modern translation knowledge and practical experience, which can be used as a matrix for solving the tasks on target texts adequate assimilation to source texts at the content-semantic, systemic-structural, cognitive-communicative, figurative-symbolic, ethno-psycholinguistic, linguistic, poetic-allegorical, etc. levels depending on the text types and their genres.

In the monograph the «paradigm» concept does not change its original proposed by Th. Kuhn meaning: a universally recognized scientific achievement that, for a time, provides model problems and the solutions for a com-munity of researchers, but it expands its conceptual boundaries significantly.

The advantages of the hermeneutical paradigm of translation are as follows:

• the synthesizing system includes not the only widely used at a certain historical stage of development research model but all the basic ones recognized by the scientific community (for example, the «Theory of regular correspondences» by Ya.I. Retsker, the «Theory of the levels of equivalence» by V.N. Komissarov, «The theory of dynamic equivalence» by E.A. Naida, «The theory of cognitive dissonance and identity in translation» by G.D. Voskoboynik, «The linguo-cognitive translation model» by T.A. Fesenko, «The polysystem theory» by Even-Zohar, etc.);

• the hermeneutical paradigm of translation is open to new models that prove their effectiveness in practice;

• due to its openness, the hermeneutical paradigm of is historically stable and transdisciplinary, as it meets the current trends in the globalization and integration of scientific knowledge. Transdisciplinarity of modern translation studies is conditioned by a special role of philosophical hermeneutics, which is reflected in the denotation of the paradigm. Hermeneutics is not among the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, semiotics, culturology, psychology, etc., serving translation studies, but it is an ‘over-disciplinary’ theoretical and methodological matrix in the form of a «hermeneutical methodological standard» regulating the application of more than twenty related sciences in the translation process.

As J.-R. Ladmiral wisely noted, «Au lieu d’être une discipline de savoir, la traductologie est une discipline de reflexion», i.e. being a «discipline of knowledge», modern translation studies acquire the status of a «discipline of reflection».

The innovative author’s hermeneutical-translational methodological standard is the methodological basis for the analysis of the cognitive-hermeneutic translation area. It is a four-level matrix that includes cognitions of pre-understanding, understanding, interpretation and translation decision.

The pre-understanding level is defined as a cognition that promotes a transdisciplinary pre-translation analysis of the source text. With the help of this level, the optimal «horizons of understanding» are established, i.e. the de-gree of understanding for the depths and boundaries of penetration into the source text, the determination of its chronotopic parameters, the understanding of the author’s cognitive potential, the comprehension of the figurative and symbolic picture of the author’s world and the characters of his work, etc. are cleared up.

The understanding level is aimed at overcoming the «cognitive other-ness and alienness» between the translator and the author, conditioned by the systemic-structural, functional-stylistic, linguo-cultural and ethno-psycho-linguistic asymmetry between the source and target languages. It is also aimed at cognitive convergence of working languages, mastering the original message, revealing the hidden author’s intentions and the essence of his «language games», etc. In other words, understanding provides the basis for the interpretation of the original in the target language.

The level of the interpretation is a very important cognition serving the translator’s overcoming the «cognitive dissonance», that is penetrating into comprehending the foreign-language «protective cognitive-cultural originality» of the source text, revealing the off-text, context and implied sense of the original and deep conceptual sphere of the figurative and symbolic author’s out-look in the target language.

The interpretation is also aimed at the translator’s choice of the working strategy for «foreignization» or «domestication» of the translation, verification competing translation variants and overcoming the «cognitive untranslatability» using, in particular, the corresponding bilingual thematic scripts (frames), as well as taking the ultimate decision on re-expressing the original message in the target language.

A translator is always an interpreter, but interpretation is not a translation. Interpretation is not systematically separated, moreover, this transdisciplinary phenomenon is closely related to the procedures and results of the pre-understanding and understanding of the author’s text and is consistently implemented on their basis.

Not every philosophical-hermeneutic explanation of the interpretation essence is acceptable for translation reflection process. The procedures of understanding and interpretation are identified in philosophy. It does not meet the real step-by-step needs of the translation process which does not end with interpretation.

At the interpretation level it is necessary to follow the postulate of the obligatory boundaries and limits of the translator’s «interpretation horizons», as he should not introduce or appropriate the original to his «postmodern» version of the source text, but should more accurately than the author reveal and reflect the explicit and hidden meanings of the original in the target text, since the translator is not a co-author, but an interpreter of the author.

The translation decision level is aimed at developing the final target language embodiment of the author’s cognitio in the form of a «secondary» translated text. The translation decision is a product of the final «discursively equivalent / pragmatically adequate» target text, subtracted into the sphere of the readers’ reflection.

The described cognitions are not separated from each other by the «Chinese wall». Their interconnection, mutual transition and intersection is ensured by the iteration mechanism, the essence of which consists in repeated re-flection at the levels of intuition and introspection.

Translation is a complicated, multidimensional phenomenon that can-not be defined unambiguously. The fact has been proved by the experience of many generations of translators. According to the famous theoretician and practitioner of translation E.G. Etkind, translation is impossible without sacrifices and replacements. And the translator always acts as the «passion bearer» of the thoughts of others.

Another outstanding theoretician and practitioner of translation academician M.L. Gasparov said that translation is the result of what the translator should do, can do and wants to do: the script sets what he should do, linguistic capability determines what he can do; what he wants consists in his preferences and tastes, according to which he selects one of these means.

Theoretical propositions of this monograph are illustrated by original examples from the works of Russian and foreign authors.

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Издание "Теория и методология перевода в когнитивно-герменевтическом освещении" (Мишкуров Э.Н., Новикова М.Г.) отмечено наградой
ОРДЕНОМ «АЛЕКСАНДР ВЕЛИКИЙ» С УДОСТОВЕРЕНИЕМ ЛАУРЕАТА